cyjessie

Friday Jan 13, 2012

英汉知识产权词汇

abandonment of a patent 放弃专利权
abandonment of a patent application 放弃专利申请
abridgment 文摘
abstract 文摘(摘要)
abuse of patent 滥用专利权
action for infringement of patent 专利侵权诉讼
action of a patent 专利诉讼
address for service 文件送达地址
affidavit 誓书
allowance 准许
amendment 修改
annual fee 年费
annuity 年费
anticipation 占先
appeal 上诉
appellation of origin 原产地名称
applicant for patent 专利申请人
application date 申请日期
application documents 申请案文件
application fee 申请费
application for patent 专利申请(案)
application laying open for public inspection 公开供公众审查的申请
application number 申请号
application papers 申请案文件
arbitration 仲裁
art 技术
article of manufacture 制品
assignee 受让人
assignment 转让
assignor 转让人
author of the invention 发明人
author's certificate 发明人证书
basic patent 基本专利
Berne Convention 伯尔尼公约
Berne Union 伯尔尼联盟
best mode 最佳方式
bibliographic data 著录资料
BIRPI 保护知识产权联合国国际局
board of appeals 申诉委员会
breach of confidence 泄密
Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure 国际承认用于专利程序的微生物保存布达佩斯条约
burden of proof 举证责任
case law 判例法
caveat 预告
certificate of addition 增补证书
certificate of correction 更正证明书
certificate of patent 专利证书
certified copy 经认证的副本
Chemical Abstracts 化学文摘
citation 引证
claim 权项
classifier 分类员
co-applicants 共同申请人
co-inventors 共同发明人
color coding 色码制
commissioner 专利局长
Community Patent Convention 共同体专利公约
complete application 完整的申请案
complete description 完整的叙述
complete specification 完整的说明书
comptroller 专利局长
compulsory license 强制许可证
conception 概念
conception date 概念日期
confidential application 机密申请
confidential information 保密情报
conflict award 冲突裁定
conflict procedure 冲突程序
conflicting applications 冲突申请案
continuation application 继续申请
continuation-in-part application 部分继续申请案
contractual license 契约性许可证
contributory infringement 简介侵犯
convention application 公约申请
convention country 公约国
convention date 公约日期
Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization 建立世界知识产权组织公约
convention period 公约期限
convention priority 公约优先权
copyright 版权
correction slip 勘误表
counter pleadings 反诉状
counterclaim 反诉
country code 国家代号
cross license 交叉许可证
data 资料
data exchange agreement 资料交换协议
data of application 申请日期
date of grant 授予日期
date of issue 颁发日期
date of patent 专利日期
date of publication 公布日期
dedication to the public 捐献于公众
defendant 被告人
defenses 辩护
defensive publication 防卫性公告
deferred examination 延迟审查
dependent claim 从属权项
dependent patent 从属专利
Derwent Publications Ltd. 德温特出版有限公司
design patent 外观设计专利
development 发展
disclaimer 放弃权项
disclosure 公开
division 分案
divisional application 分案申请
domination patent 支配专利
drawing 附图
duration of patent 专利有效期
economic patent 经济专利
effective filing date 实际申请日期
employee's invention 雇员发明
EPO 欧洲专利局
European Patent Office 欧洲专利局
ESARIPO 英语非洲工业产权组织
European Patent Convention 欧洲专利公约
evidence 证据
examination 审查
examination countries 审查制国家
examination for novelty 新颖性审查
examiner 审查员
examiner's report 审查员报告
exclusive license 独占性许可证
exclusive right 专有权
experimental use 实验性使用
expired patent 期满专利
exploitation of a patent 实施专利
exposition priority 展览优先权
expropriation 征用
extension of term of a patent 延长专利期限
fee 费用
FICPI 国际工业产权律师联合会
file copy 存档原件
filing date 申请日期
filing fee 申请费
filing of an application 提出申请
final action 终局决定书
first-to-file principle 先申请原则
first-to-invention principle 先发明原则
force majeure 不可抗力
foreign patent application 外国专利申请
formal examination 形式审查
gazette 公报
Geneva Treaty on the International Recording of Scientific Discoveries 关于科学发现国际注册日内瓦条约
grace period 宽限期
grant of a patent 授予专利权
holder of a patent 专利持有人
ICIREPAT 专利局间情报检索国际合作巴黎联盟委员会
Paris Union Committee for International Cooperation in Information Retrieval among Patent Offices 专利局间情报检索国际合作巴黎联盟委员会
IFIA 国际发明人协会联合会
International Federation of Inventor's Association 国际发明人协会联合会
IBB 国际专利研究所
Institut International des Brevets 国际专利研究所
imitation 仿造
impeachment 控告
improvement 改进
improvement patent 改进专利
independence of patents 专利独立
indication of source 产地标记
indirect infringement 间接侵犯
industrial applicability 工业实用性
industrial design 工业品外观设计
industrial property 工业产权
information in the public domain 公开情报
infringement of a patent 侵犯专利权
infringement of a trade mark 侵犯商标权
INID 著录资料识别码
ICIREPAT Numbers for the Identification of Data 著录资料识别码
INPADOC 国际专利文献中心
INSPEC 国际物理学和工程情报服务部
insufficient disclosure 公开不允分
intellectual property 知识产权
interdependent patents 相互依存的专利
interference procedure 抵触程序
interlocutory injunction 中间禁止令
interlocutory order 中间命令
International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 保护植物新品种国际公约
International Patent Classification Agreement 国际专利分类协定
International Preliminary Examining Authority 国际初审单位
international protection 国际保护
International Searching Authority 国际检索单位
invalidation 无效
invention 发明
inventive step 独创性
inventor 发明人
inventor's certificate 发明人证书
IPC 国际专利分类
International Patent Classification 国际专利分类
issue of a patent 办法专利
joint applicants 共同申请人
joint invention 共同发明
joint inventors 共同发明人
joint patentees 共同专利权人
journal 公报
judgment 判决
junior party 后申请方
know-how 技术诀窍
lapsed patent 已终止的专利
lawsuit of a patent 专利诉讼
legal person 法人
legend 说明
LES International 国际许可贸易执行人协会
Licensing Executives Society International 国际许可贸易执行人协会
letters patent 专利证书
license 许可证
license agreement 许可证协议
license of course 当然许可证
licensing 许可证贸易
licensor 许可人
Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration 保护原产地名称及国际注册里斯本协定
Locarno Agreement Establishing an International Classification for Industrial Design 建立工业品外观设计国际分类洛迦诺协定
loss of a patent 专利权的丧失
Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks 商标国际注册马德里协定
Madrid Agreement for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods 制止商品产地虚假或欺骗性标记马德里协定
main patent 主专利
maintenance fee 维持费
marking 标记
memorandum of understanding 谅解备忘录
method 方法
microforms 微缩文件
minimum documentation 最少限度检索文献
minimum royalties 最低提成费
misuse of patent 滥用专利权
mixed license 混合许可证
model laws 示范法
most-favoured provision 最惠条款
name of invention 发明名称
national treatment 国民待遇
natural person 自然人
neighboring rights 邻接权
new varieties of plants 植物新品种
Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of Goods and Services for the Purposes of the Registration of Marks 商标注册用商品与服务国际分类尼斯协定
non-examining countries 不审查制国家
non-exclusive license 非独占性许可证
non-obviousness 非显而易见性
non-use of a patent 不实施专利
notary public 公正机关
notice of infringement 侵权通知
novelty 新颖性
OAPI 非洲知识产权组织
objection 异议
office action 专利局审查决定书
opposition 异议
originality 独创性
owner of a patent 专利所有人
parent application 原申请
Paris Convention 巴黎公约
Paris Union 巴黎联盟
patent 专利
patent act 专利法
patent agent 专利代理人
patent applied for 已申请专利
patent attorney 专利律师
patent classification 专利分类
patent documentation 专利文献
patent documents 专利文件
patent families 同族专利
patent for an invention 发明专利
patent law 专利法
patent license 专利许可证
patent number 专利号
patent of addition 增补专利
patent of confirmation 确认专利
patent of importation 输入专利
patent of introduction 引进专利
patent of revalidation 再效专利
patent office 专利局
patent pending 专利未决
patent right 专利权
patent rules 专利实施细则
patent system 专利制度
patentability 专利性
patented invention 专利发明
patentee 专利权人
patenting 授予专利权
PCT 专利合作条约
PCT Union 专利合作条约
pending application 未决申请
period of a patent 专利有效期
person skilled in the art 所属技术领域的专业人员
petition 请求书
petty patent 小专利
plaintiff 原告人
plant patent 植物专利
pleadings 起诉状
precautional patent 预告专利
precedents 判例
prescription 时效
prevention of unfair competitionprincipal patent 主专利
prior art 先有技术
prior use 先用
priority 优先权
priority claim 优先权声明
priority declaration 优先权声明
process patent 方法专利
processing of an application 申请案的处理
product patent 产品专利
provisional specification 临时说明书
publication 公布
reclassification 再分类
reexamination 复审
refusal 驳回
register of patents 专利登记册
registered patent 登记专利
registered trade mark 注册商标
registration 登记
registration countries 登记制国家
reissue patent 再颁发专利
rejection 驳回
remedy 补救
renewal fee 续展费
request 请求书
restoration of a lapsed patent 恢复已终止的专利
restricted conditions 限制条款
review 复审
revival of an abandoned application 恢复已放弃的申请
revocation of a patent 撤销专利
royalties 提成费
Science Abstracts 科学文摘
scientific discovery 科学发现
scope of protection 保护范围
seal 盖章
search 检索
secret patent 机密专利
service invention 职务发明
service mark 服务标记
signature 签署
simple license 普通许可证
single applicant 单独申请人
sliding scale of royalties 滑动提成费
sole license 排他性许可证
specification 说明书
state of the art 先有技术水平
statement of claim 诉讼陈述
statement of defense 辩护陈述
substance patent 物质专利
substantive examination 实质性审查
succession 继承
sufficiency of description 充分描述
technical assistance 技术协助
technical data 技术资料
technology transfer 技术转移
temporary protection 临时保护
term of a patent 专利有效期
The Hague Agreement Concerning the International Deposit of Industrial Designs 工业品外观设计国际保存海牙协定
title of invention 发明名称
title to patent 专利所有权
trade mark 商标
Trademark Registration Treaty 商标注册条约
trade name 厂商名称
trial 审判
unfair competition 不正当竞争
unity of invention 发明单一性
Universal Copyright Convention 世界版权公约
unpatentable subject matter 不能取得专利的主题
use patent 用途专利
utility certificate 实用证书
utility model 实用新型
Vienna Agreement Establishing an International Classification of the Figurative Elements of Marks 建立商标图形要素国际分类维也纳协定
Vienna Agreement for the Protection of Type Faces and their International Deposit 印刷字体保护及其国际保存维也纳协定
WIPO 世界知识产权组织
withdrawal of an application 撤回申请
witness 证人
working of a patent 实施专利
World Intellectual Property Organization 世界知识产权组这
WPI 世界专利索引
World Patent Index 世界专利索引

会议英语的特征

会议英语的特征() 会议英语的主体为口头英语,但和口语中代表性的日常会话用语,在格调上又有很大的差异。如上表所示会议英语是以标准英语Standard English)中的正式英语(Formal English)和一般英语General English)为主体,有时看情况也可用非正式英语(Informal English),但非标准英语Nonstandard English)却绝对不用。以国际学术会议来说,开幕、闭幕、颁奖典礼上的致辞、宣言等较正式的场合,都用正式英语。各种演讲、及以读稿方式发表的一般学术演讲,则可用正式英语或一般英语,但即席式演讲则多用一般英语,讨论会上也是用一般英语。在宴会、餐会等以友谊为目的的场合中,即使刚开始时是以一般英语来交谈的人,也会因气氛的关系而逐渐变成用非正式英语;初见面的外国友人间,也会像多年好友般用通俗的会话方式来交谈。 上表是依据英语国家社会中,种种不同的环境、情况、关系等来选择最适当的语法、表达方式、格调等,并加以固定化而分类。我们在学习会议英语时,所应该努力的方向,是在国际交流场合中,能识别是严肃的仪式、或是要求正确性的学术演讲、或个人性的非正式会话等场合,而使用最适合于当时情况的英语。 .会议英语的特征 前面已将英语的种类,和会议英语所处的地位做了说明,这里要再将其特征做个详细的探讨。 所谓会议英语,并不是指和现代英语不相同。相反的,从其多种特征来看,可以把它看成是英语中较高级的层次,以了解它在国际交流上的功能。 会议英语的特征可分「逻辑上的特征」和「语言学上的特征」。所谓「逻辑上的特征」是依据什么人在什么样的场合中,有什么目的、或想表达什么等观点来看;而「语言学上的特征」则是从谈话、表达方式、格调、文法等观点来看。 1.逻辑上的特征 分为使用的场合、使用者、使用的目的、表达的内容等,列举如下: 1)使用的场合 比较正式的学术性会议、一般会议等联欢会场合较多。 从可容纳千人的大礼堂到小房间式的会场。屋外露天的场合较少。 使用于有听众或没有听众的会场。 使用于公开或非公开的场合。 国际色彩浓厚的交流场合,如国际学术会议、国际会议以及各种国际性的集会等。 专家群集的场合较多,以一般大众为对象的情形较少。 使用于有翻译者和没有翻译者的场合。 2)使用者 多为知识文化水准较高的人,如学者、官员、代表等。 出席国际学术会议者,如负有高度国际文化、知识交流使用的人。 代表国家或私人企业的权益者。 从所扮演的角色来看,如学术会会长、主席、演讲者、参考讨论者,及其他的贵宾,以至于一般出席者。 参加面试、面谈的人。 3)使用的目的 公众场合的谈话(Public Speaking),口头沟通(Oral Communication)。 以娱乐为目的的情形较少,而在知识、意志、感情中,与前两者有关的精神活动场合为多。 学术会的演讲、致辞,听众也一起加入的讨论、问答,会议的主持、表扬、通知等。 主持没有听众的讨论会、座谈会,或在会中演讲、讨论等。 主持国际性或国家的会议、私人企业的会议,或在会中演说、致辞、讨论等。 各种社交场合、集会中的演说、致辞。 面试、面谈。 4)不同情况的表达法 高级官员、来宾致辞时的表达法。 由主席掌握会议时的表达法(如宣布开幕、介绍演讲者、开始讨论、诱导发言、中止发言、避免难题、提醒时间、感谢、注意、委托、通知、闭幕等)。 演讲者在寒喧、说明论点、转换语气时的表达法,或在详述、略述讨论、各种幻灯片时的表达法,或做结论及其他舆论演讲有关的表达法。 一般讨论者的表达法,发表意见、评论、问答、赞成、反对、期许、其他。 有听众的场合,所采用的表达法,应使听众能够确实地接受。

会议英语的特征() 2.语言学上的特征 首先由它是口头英语这一点,来和书信英文做一个比较,而举出基基本的特征;再列举说明使用正式英语、一般英语、非正式英语等各个情况时的特征;最后,再详加探讨语言学的重要特征。 1)做为口语英语的基本特征 虽然是口头英语,但并不是以口语化说法(colloquialism)为主体的口语英语。 虽然是口头英语,但主体仍是书信英文常用的正式英语、一般英语,有时看情况也可使用非正式英语,但绝不用非标准英语。 因为是口头英语,因此可以用口语化的转折廉洁,来转移、变更、区分话题,使听众容易了解,并吸引听众的注意力。 在书信英文方面,反复阅读很有效;但若是口头英语,演讲者重复说同样的话,不但不能使听众明白,又有时间的限制,所以口头英语的选择,要比书信英文来得简洁精要。 读稿式的演讲常被批评为“He speaks like a book”,而最受欢迎的即席式演讲用的,多是最容易了解的词句。 常常使用附带说明的插入句,有时会因内容繁杂而令人厌烦。 不要过度使用不必要的插入词句(补白)。 不要常出现停顿的语气(ums and uhs)。 用重音、语调,来表达书信英文所无法表达的,细微的感情差异、强调、讽刺、幽默等功能。 可以用手势、脸部表情、姿态等非言语的动作,来补助表达书信英文所无法表达的上述功能。但相反的,有时这些非言语的传达,也会带给说话者不好的影响。 2)使用正式英语时的特征 严格限制形式。 要求合乎文法。 表达的内容要求严密正确。 常使用拉丁、希腊语系的多音节字,冗长句,用长的片语代替单字,拉丁语等,而产生过于夸张的效果。 常使用学术性的专门用语(学术性演讲等)。 也有使用陈腔滥调的时候。 通常优先使用非片语动词(phrasal verb),非双字动词(prepositional verb),非介系词片语动词的拉丁语系单一动词(simple verb)。——所谓片语动词如:put off (= postpone),介系词动词如:call on (= visit),介系词片语动词如:check up on (= investigate)而单一动词指的是postpone, visit, investigate等。 不用缩写(contraction——所谓缩写, do not 说成don't不用口语化说法(colloquialism)或俚语(slang)。 3)使用一般英语时的特征 形式上的限制比正式英语少,比非正式英语多。 虽也要求合乎文法,但有时也可例外,使用口头英语接受的用法。 表达的内容要求严密正确。 多单节字、用长的片语代替单字、冗长句、拉丁语等的使用,较正式英语为少,因此较不夸张。 常用到学术性专门用语(学术性演讲等)。 也常用到陈腔滥调。 除了拉丁语系的单一动词外,也常用片语动词、双字动词、介系词片语动词。 常用省略法。 不用口语说法或俚语

会议英语的特征() 4)使用非正式英语时的特征 亲切通俗,随和的口语用法很多,但不流于俚语、黑话之类的非标准英语。 容许文法有特殊情形。 所表达的内容,要有足够的严密、正确性。 多音节字、用长的片语代替单字、冗长句、拉丁语等几乎不用,多用些简单、平易的词句。 很少用到学术性的专门用语。 有时也会用些陈腔滥调。 常用片语动词、双字动词、介系词片语动词。 常用省略法。 3.重要而有趣的语言学特征深入探讨 1)插入语 在写文章时,往往可以花很多时间慢慢推敲,但口头英语则不行。即使是看稿演讲,也常因当时情况,或说话者本身突发的灵感,而即兴地加入想说的话。这也是「会议英语」的一个特征。但应避免使用过度,而造成听不懂、误会等情形。以下是「会议英语」中出现的例子: 以逗点插入的例子 “For some reason, and the reason I cannot explain adequately to you, the saturated fat that you eat is very important.” “The major cause, and it seems to be increasing the rate of uterine cancer in this country, is estrogen.” “Occasionally you will encounter patients, and we have had experience with three such patients in the last two years, who develop variant angina.” “We feel, and I think I am talking for the whole panel, that it is important to discuss this question, not only in scientific terms but also in terms of human and ethical values.” 以破折号插入的例子 “It seems to me that the average parent and I have three children feels that his or her child is more advanced, stronger, better coordinated, and probably more intelligent than the average.” “Dr. A, besides the need to educate the public and bring the patient more into the decision-making about prescription drugs and we'll get back to that later what are some of the problems you see with the prescription drug system in this country?”

会议英语的特征() 2)补白和停顿词 所谓补白,是指特意把演说、文章等拉长,或夸大、铺张时所用,不必要的插入语句。英语称为paddingfiller(会话时称conversation filler)。通常是指单字、片语,但也可指句子,广义来讲应包括演讲、会话中常出现的停顿词erum等,但本书则分开来讲。补白在书信英文或口头英语中都用,停顿词则只用于对话等特殊场合中,而不用书信英文,可以说是口头英语的一个特征。在想不出适当的词句时,考虑接下去如何讲才好时、踌躇时、争取时间时、慎重发言以避免说错话时……等场合中都可使用,有时也会变成个人习惯。这种用语有利也有弊,但最好避免有太明显的冗长句或杂音的出现。 使用补白(padding)的例子 “It must definitely be recognized that quite often the concurrent use of drugs of different modes of action for the same indication may actually potentiate the therapeutic effect.” 句中的斜体字definitely, quite, actually 都是非必要的补白,可以改成下面的句子。 “It must be recognized that often the concurrent use of drugs of different modes of action for the same indication may potentiate the therapeutic effect.” 下面的句子中斜体字部分也是补白,可以省略掉。 “Concerning this matter it may be borne in mind that the more experience you cam present to your prospective employer, the better your chances are of being considered a suitable applicant.” “As far as our observations are concerned, they show that the drug reduces the frequency and severity of anginal attacks and does not appear to precipitate heart failure or airways obstruction.” 第二段可以改写如下: “Our observations show that the drug reduces the frequency and severity of anginal attacks and does not appear to precipitate heart failure or airways obstruction.” 下面例句中的if you will意思为“if you see what I mean, if you accept my point, if you''re willing to see my point”,是常出现于会议英语中的补白。 “It is very likely that the latent period between infection, if you will, and the appearance of the neoplasm in primate systems, including man, is probably very long.” “Another way of looking at this is in terms of public health and comprehensive health panning, if you will.” “There is nothing you cal do for it other than try another form of therapy, like penicillamine, if you will, or BAL.” “All of these observations are just complexities added to complexities, if you will.” “So I''m suggesting an addition, if you will, to the methodology for determining the origins of language.” 下面的of course 也是会议英语中常出现的补白。 “Now, the question, of course, is, what is the rationale for your definition?” “This, of course, leads to the possibility of developing a vaccine against gonorrhea.” 同样的,obviously(明显地)也是常用的补白。 “The alternative, obviously, is to give postoperative radiotherapy.” “We are not too much concerned about this. Now, obviously, if the patient if elderly and shows evidence of congestive heart failure prior to the initiation of therapy, we have to be a little bit more careful.”

用英语主持会议

用英语主持会议1):会议的结构
I - Introductions
Opening the Meeting
Welcoming and Introducing Participants
Stating the Principal Objectives of a Meeting
Giving Apologies for Someone Who is Absent
II - Reviewing Past Business
Reading the Minutes (notes) of the Last Meeting
Dealing with Recent Developments
III - Beginning the Meeting
Introducing the Agenda
Allocating Roles (secretary, participants)
Agreeing on the Ground Rules for the Meeting (contributions, timing, ecision-making, etc.)
IV - Discussing Items
Introducing the First Item on the Agenda
Closing an Item
Next Item
Giving Control to the Next Participant
V - Finishing the Meeting
Summarizing
Finishing Up
Suggesting and Agreeing on Time, Date and Place for the Next Meeting
Thanking Participants for Attending
Closing the Meeting

The following pages focus on each part of the meeting and the appropriate language for each situation.


用英语主持会议(2):主持会议
Opening 宣布会议开始
Good morning/afternoon, everyone.
If we are all here, let's get started / start the meeting / start.
Welcoming and Introducing 欢迎和介绍出席人员
Please join me in welcoming (name of participant)
We're pleased to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to extend a warm welcome to (name of participant)
It's a pleasure to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to introduce (name of participant)
Stating the Principal Objectives 阐明会议主要议题
We're here today to ...
I'd like to make sure that we ...
Our main aim today is to ...
I've called this meeting in order to ...
Giving Apologies for Someone Who is Absent 对缺席者表示遗憾
I'm afraid.., (name of participant) can't be with us today. She is in...
Unfortunately, (name of participant) ... will not be with us to day because he ...
I have received apologies for absence from (name of participant), who is in (place).
Reading the Minutes (notes) of the Last Meeting 宣读上次会议记要
To begin with I'd like to quickly go through the minutes of our last meeting.
First, let's go over the report from the last meeting, which was held on (date)
Here are the minutes from our last meeting, which was on (date)
Dealing with Recent Developments 询问近期动态
Jack, can you tell us how the XYZ project is progressing?
Jack, how is the XYZ project coming along?
John, have you completed the report on the new accounting package?

Has everyone received a copy of the Tate Foundation report on current marketing trends?
Moving Forward 转向下一个议题
So, if there is nothing else we need to discuss, let's move on to today's agenda.
Shall we get down to business?
Is there Any Other Business?
If there are no further developments, I'd like to move on to today's topic.
Introducing the Agenda 介绍议程
Have you all received a copy of the agenda?
There are X items on the agenda. First, ... second, ... third, ... lastly, ...
Shall we take the points in this order?
If you don't mind, I'd like to go in order today.
skip item 1 and move on to item 3
I suggest we take item 2 last.
Allocating Roles (secretary, participants) 分配秘书和出席者的会议角色
(name of participant) has agreed to take the minutes.
(name of participant), would you mind taking the minutes?
(name of participant) has kindly agreed to give us a report on ...
(name of participant) will lead point 1, (name of participant) point 2, and (name of participant) point 3.
(name of participant), would you mind taking notes today?
Agreeing on the Ground Rules for the Meeting (contributions, timing, decision-making, etc.) 就会议程序(发言,时间,决策)达成一致
We will first hear a short report on each point first, followed by a discussion of ...
I suggest we go round the table first.
Let's make sure we finish by ...
I'd suggest we ...

There will be five minutes for each item.
We'll have to keep each item to 15 minutes. Otherwise we'll never get through.
Introducing the First Item on the Agenda 介绍第一项议题
So, let's start with ...
I'd suggest we start with...
Why don't we start with...
So, the first item on the agenda is
Pete, would you like to kick off?
Shall we start with ...
(name of participant), would you like to introduce this item?
Closing an Item 结束一个议题
I think that takes care of the first item.
Shall we leave that item?
Why don't we move on to...
If nobody has anything else to add, lets ...
Next Item 开始下一个议题
Let's move onto the next item
Now that we've discussed X, let's now ...
The next item on today's agenda is...
Now we come to the question of.
Giving Control to the Next Participant 请下一位出席者发言
I'd like to hand over to (name of participant), who is going to lead the next point.
Next, (name of participant) is going to take us through ...
Now, I'd like to introduce (name of participant) who is going to ...
Summarizing 总结
Before we close today's meeting, let me just summarize the main points.
Let me quickly go over today's main points.
To sum up, ...,.
OK, why don't we quickly summarize what we've done today.
In brief, ...
Shall I go over the main points?
Finishing Up 结束今日议题
Right, it looks as though we've covered the main items.
If there are no other comments, I'd like to wrap this meeting up.
Let's bring this to a close for today.
Is there Any Other Business?
Suggesting and Agreeing on Time, Date and Place for the Next Meeting 建议和征询下一次会议时间,日期和地点
Can we set the date for the next meeting, please?
So, the next meeting will be on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ...
Let's next meet on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ... What about the following Wednesday? How is that?
Thanking Participants for Attending 感谢出席人员
I'd like to thank Marianne and Jeremy for coming over from London.
Thank you all for attending.
Thanks for your participation.
Closing the Meeting 宣布散会
The meeting is finished, we'll see each other next ...
The meeting is closed.
I declare the meeting closed.

范文:关于日程安排的备忘录(附备忘录句型)(

To: Carl Fowler

From: Jane Larson

Subject: Scheduling the film

Date: March 13, 2006

We’d better rearrange the showing schedule for next week’s film.

As you know, we are going to show the film, The Smiths, next week in the projection room, which holds only fifty people comfortably without overcrowding. It is not big enough for the whole staff to see the film at the same time. So I suggest we show the film in different times. For example, we can arrange 40 people to see the film there on Tuesday at 3:00 p.m., and the remaining 40 on Thursday at the same time.

If there’s any problem about this arrangement, please let me know.

Jane Larson

C. Stan Clark

译文

收件人:卡尔·福勒

发件人:简·拉森

主题:电影日程安排

日期:2006313

我们最好能够重新安排下周电影的播放时间。

你知道我们打算下周在放映厅播放《史密斯夫妇》这部电影,但放映厅只能同时容纳50人。我们的员工不能同时看电影。所以我建议在将放映时间选在不同时段。比如,40人在周二下午3点在那里看这部影片,剩下的40人在周四同一时间同一地点观看。

如果对此安排有什么问题请通知我。

·拉森

抄送:斯坦·克拉克

备忘录写作攻略:备忘录是一种录以备忘的公文,在机关或公司内部使用最多。主要用来通报消息(会议安排、情况报告、责任确认、问题处理)、回复来函、评估成绩等内部公务。备忘录一般包括以下几部分:

收件人姓名、职务;

发件人姓名、职务;

保密级别:分为三类 top secret, secret, confidential, 一般备忘录不用保密,这一栏就空着;

文件编号:发件人方文件编号和收件人方文件编号;

发件日期;

备忘录标题线;

正文;

签名、职务;

誊写备忘录的人和打字员姓名首字母缩写;

附件数目;

抄送:如果送给收件人以外的人时要注明。

写备忘录时要注意以下几点:

(1) 第一句话就要明白交代写此备忘录的目的。如果回复别人的备忘录要注明对方写备忘录的时间。

(2) 备忘录中交代的事情应该简明扼要,一段话说明一个意思。

(3) 如在备忘录中通知信息,语言一定要准确,避免产生歧义。

(4) 最后要用一句话总结,强调读备忘录的人要尽快做出反应。

2.必背模版句型

I have the honor to inform you that...我很荣幸地通知您……

I would like to remind you that our office is in want of a new English typewriter.提醒您一下,我们办公室急需一部英文打字机。

I have several proposals for cutting down the cost.关于降低成本我有几个建议。

In response to your request for... I have to inform you that we can not approve it. 对于你……的请求,我不得不告诉你我们不能批准。

This is further to your memo dated June 6, 2006, in which you proposed that employees adopt the “punchin” system.回复你200666日关于员工实行打卡考勤制度的备忘录。

The board of directors approved your proposal at the meeting last week.董事会在上周的会议上通过了你的建议。

I believe these changes will decrease the product cost.我相信这些改革会降低成本的。

Please let me know your response to these suggestions.我想知道你对于这些建议的看法。

Please feel free to contact me if you need further information.如果需要更多信息请随时与我联系。

I highly appreciate your considerations to these proposals.我期待你能考虑一下这些建议。

法律翻译

在合同中,不用before而用prior,不用after而用subsequent,不用 but而用 provided that,在这几个例子中,常用词都被正式的词取代。其他的正式用语还有:construe, deem, operate, same, object to, whereas, without, prejudice等等。

宣誓书(affidavit)的正式用语有 being first duly sworn, depose and says; before me, a notary public。而判决书则用Now therefore, It is ordered, adjudged, and decreed做出判决。

英语不少普通词用在法律文件里,失去了一般人所理解的通常意义,而具有属于法律范畴的、与其原义大相径庭的意思。下面所列的一些(仅仅是一部分)常用词,用在法律文件中所表示的意义,往往只有律师才清楚:

action(诉讼)、alienation(转让)、avoid(取消)、consideration(对价)、counterpart(有同等效力的副本)、execute(签署)、hand(签名)、instrument(法律文件)、negligence(过失)、party(一方)、prejudice(损害)、presents(本法律文件)。

said(上述,该)、save(除了)、serve(送达)。

今天的法律英语中还保留着许多那个时期常用的词以及其词义,其中最主要是以here, there和where与介词合成的词:

- hereafter, herein, hereof, hereto, heretofore, hereunder, herewith;

- thereafter, thereat, thereby, therefore, therefrom, therein, thereof, thereon, thereto, theretofore, thereunder, therewith;

- whereas, whereby, wherein, whereof

此外还有aforesaid, forthwith及作形容词用的 said和such。

在现代标准法律词典里,仍然收录了直接来自拉丁文的词语。其中有些拉丁词已被吸收成为英语词,如:affidavit(宣誓书)、alias(化名;别名)、alibi(不在犯罪现场)、quorum(法定人数)、adhoc(专门的;专门地)、bona fide(真诚的,真诚地)、de facto(事实上的)、in re(关于)、inter alia(除了别的因素以外)、mutatis mutandis(在细节上作适当修正后)、part passu(按相同比例)、per se(自身)、pro bono(为了公益)、pro rata(按比例)等。

5)使用法律术语和行话、套话

各行各业都有专门术语和行话,律师行业亦不例外。法律术语和行话对不熟悉法律业务的外行人来说,是难以理解的,但对于律师开展业务和起草文件却是不可或缺的。律师使用的术语和行话不胜枚举,这里仅收录最为常见的一些用语:alibi(不在犯罪现场)、appeal(上诉)、bail(保释)、burden of proof(举证责任)、cause of action(案由)、contributory negligence(与有过失)、damages(损失赔偿金)、defendant(被告)、due diligence(审慎调查)、felony(重罪)、lessee(承租人)、lessor(出租人)、letters Patent(专利证书)、 negotiable instrument(流通票据)、novation(更替)、plaintiff(原告)、prejudice(损害)、reasonable doubt(合理的怀疑)、remedy(救济)、secondment(临时调任)、tort(侵权行为)。

为了使要表达的意思更为精确,或界定适用范围,律师在起草合同文件时每每使用现成的套话,如:and for no other purposes, shall not operate as a waiver, shall not be deemed a consent, including but not limited to, or other similar or dissimilar causes, without prejudice to, nothing contained herein shall等。

此外,由于英语的名词和代词有单数和复数形式,又有性别之分,为了防止所涉及的条款出现片面性解释,在合同的“定义和解释”部分,通常都有这样“以一概全”的固定句子:

Words in the singular Include the plural and vice versa;words used in the masculine gender include every gender.这种法律文件特有的套话在普通英语里是找不到的,因而也更能反映法律英语的文体特色。

与文学作品多用主动语态以增强表现力度和动感迥然不同,法律文件旨在对人们的行为做出法律规定,规范各种经济活动在没有具体人物执行某一动作,或表述重点在于动作本身而不在于动作执行者的情况下,把动词转化为抽象化的名词和使用被动语态恰恰适合法律英语庄重刻板的文体特点。下面的例子充分反映出法律文件的这一句法特征:

Unless otherwise provided for herein, failure or delay on the part of any party to exercise any right, power or privilege under this Agreement shall not operate as a waiver thereof, not shall any single or partial exercise of any right,power or privilege preclude further exercise thereof or exercise of any other right, power or privilege.A waiver by one of the parties at any time of a breach of any term or provision of this Agreement committed by the other party shall not be construed as a waiver by such party of any subsequent breach to be committed by the other party, nor shall it be construed as a waiver by such party of its rights under such provision or any of its other rights under this Agreement.

上面的这条合同条款中,有这样一些源自动词的抽象化名词,如:failure, delay, waiver, exercise, breach;被动结构则有unless otherwise provided for herein, shall not be construed as等。

法律翻译的标准,同其他文字翻译一样,就是译文务求忠实通顺。然而,由于法律文件具有高度的严肃性和严密性,法律翻译必须不折不扣、准确无误地译出原文的内容,同时又要使译文顺畅,且符合法律语言的文体风格。翻译时,一词一句都应紧扣原文,遣词造句要仔细斟酌,切忌因一味追求“达”和“雅”而随意解释或删改原意。忠实于原文应该是法律翻译的第一标准。即使原文有的句子比较生涩,也不能为求“顺”而舍“信”,借用鲁迅先生的话来说,就是“宁信而不顺”。当然,理想的法律翻译应该是“忠实”和“通顺”的完满结合,这也应该成为翻译工作者孜孜以求的目标。就法律翻译的方法而言,“直译”(简言之,即严格按原文的词句翻译)是最可取的。

具体而言,翻译时对法律文件的每一个词(包括虚词)都不能掉以轻心,尤其是用在法律英语里的常用词(如前文第二节第二段所列举的一些词),应该按其在法律语境中的意思进行翻译(如将action译为“诉讼”,而不是“行动”)。即使是平时不大起眼的介词,如 at, in, on等也应给以足够的重视,如下面一句句子中的几个介词分别指明“土地”的不同位置,必须——准确翻译出来,否则以后有可能引起合同争议。

法律翻译的基本要求

法律翻译工作者除了应具备从事一般文字翻译所必需的能力外,在英语和汉语的功底和写作能力上有较高的要求,同时还需要有一定的法律和经济方面的知识。前面说过,法律语言是一种正式文体,有特殊的用语和不同于一般文章的写作方式,且不时出现艰涩难懂的文句,英语水平欠缺的人甚至在阅读和理解法律文件时就会遇到不少困难。同样,译者的汉语写作能力达不到水准也难以产生符合要求的翻译文本。法律文件,特别是商业律师事务所起草的各种合同、协议和其他文件,涉及面广而杂,法律、经济、商业、贸易、金融、证券、保险、税收、仓储、运输、海关、商品检验、环境保护、知识产权等无所不包。这就要求法律翻译工作者对这些领域有尽可能多的了解,并且要不断掌握这方面的最新知识。为了适应、进而胜任法律翻译工作的需要,学习有关教程,查阅有关参考资料(包括勤查经济、法律工具书)和请教精于相关领域的律师,对于熟悉和掌握专业知识会有很大帮助。从这个意义上讲,法律翻译的过程也是一个学习的过程。

翻译法律文件要求忠实于原文,这不但需要表意准确,而且还要符合法律语言的风格。具体而言,译文要正规,不宜使用口语化的词汇和表达方式,要按照汉语大多重复名词的习惯,尽量少用和不用人称代词和物主代词,这样既可以避免出现对象指代不清的问题,又可以使文字更加正式。这里,需要指出的是,虽然法律文件中有较多意义相近的并列词语和结构复杂的长句,但并不等于法律语言罗唆、晦涩。因此,翻译法律文件,文字要精确,洗练,句子再长也要把原文的意思表达得一清二楚,务必去除任何多余的和不必要的词语。对于法律翻译,“言贵简洁”的格言也同样适用。

行文至此,有必要特别强调,法律翻译是一项严肃的工作,容不得半点差错,否则很有可能引起法律纠纷。因此,从事法律翻译,首先要有高度的责任心和敬业精神,工作中不允许丝毫懈怠和马虎。翻译前要做到心中有数,下笔时要慎之又慎,稍有疏忽就会出错,有时候差之毫厘,可能失之千里。每译完一篇法律文件,都应当核对原文,仔细检查有无差错和遗漏,直到满意时才润色定稿。从事法律翻译,只有具备上述各项能力和良好的素质,方能圆满完成所承担的任务。

比较难的专业级英语翻译,不好翻译啊,最好转帖收藏

全国人民代表大会 National People's Congress (NPC)

  主席团 Presidium

  常务委员会 Standing Committee

  办公厅 General Office

  秘书处 Secretariat

  代表资格审查委员会 Credentials Committee

  提案审查委员会 Motions Examination Committee

  民族委员会 Ethnic Affairs Committee

  法律委员会 Law Committee

  财政经济委员会 Finance and Economy Committee

  外事委员会 Foreign Affairs Committee

  教育、科学、文化和卫生委员会 Education, Science, Culture and Public Health Committee

  内务司法委员会 Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs

  华侨委员会 Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee

  法制工作委员会 Commission of Legislative Affairs

  特定问题调查委员会 Commission of Inquiry into Specific Questions

  宪法修改委员会 Committee for Revision of the Constitution

2、中华人民共和国主席 President of the People's Republic of China

3、中央军事委员会 Central Military Commission

4、最高人民法院 Supreme People's Court

5、最高人民检察院 Supreme People's Procuratorate

6、国务院 State Council

  (1)国务院部委 Ministries and Commissions Directly under the State Council

  外交部 Ministry of Foreign Affairs

  国防部 Ministry of National Defence

  国家发展和改革委员会 National Development and Reform Commission

  国家经济贸易委员会 State Economic and Trade Commission

  教育部 Ministry of Education

  科学技术部 Ministry of Science and Technology

  国防科学技术工业委员会 Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National De-fence

  国家民族事物委员会 State Ethnic Affairs Commission

  公安部 Ministry of Public Security

  国家安全部 Ministry of State Security

  监察部 Ministry of Supervision

  民政部 Ministry of Civil Affairs

  司法部 Ministry of Justice

  财政部 Ministry of Finance

  人事部 Ministry of Personnel

  劳动和社会保障部 Ministry of Labour and Social Security

  国土资源部 Ministry of Land and Resources

  建设部 Ministry of Construction

  铁道部 Ministry of Railways

  交通部 Ministry of Communications

  信息产业部 Ministry of Information Industry

  水利部 Ministry of Water Resources

  农业部 Ministry of Agriculture

  对外贸易经济合作部 Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation

  文化部 Ministry of Culture

  卫生部 Ministry of Public Health

  国家计划生育委员会 State Family Planning Commission

  中国人民银行 People's Bank of China

  国家审计署 State Auditing Administration

(2)国务院办事机构 Offices under the State Council

  国务院办公厅 General Office of the State Council

  侨务办公室 Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs

  港澳台办公室 Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office

  台湾事物办公室 Taiwan Affairs Office

  法制办公室 Office of Legislative Affairs

  经济体制改革办公室 Office for Economic Restructuring

  国务院研究室 Research Office of the State Council

  新闻办公室 Information Office

10、新闻出版 News media

总编辑 Editor-in-chief
高级编辑 Full Senior Editor
主任编辑 Associate Senior Editor
编辑 Editor
助理编辑 Assistant Editor
高级记者 Full Senior Reporter
主任记者 Associate Senior Reporter
记者 Reporter
助理记者 Assistant Reporter
编审 Professor of Editorship
编辑 Editor
助理编辑 Assistant Editor
技术编辑 Technical Editor
技术设计员 Technical Designer
校对 Proofreader

11、翻译 Translation

译审 Professor of Translation
翻译 Translator/Interpreter
助理翻译 Assistant Translator/Interpreter
电台/电视台台长 Radio/TV Station Controller
播音指导 Director of Announcing
主任播音员 Chief Announcer
播音员 Announcer
电视主持人 TV Presenter
电台节目主持人 Disk Jockey

12、工艺、美术、电影 Arts,crafts and movies

导演 Director
演员 Actor
画师 Painter
指挥 Conductor
编导 Scenarist
录音师 Sound Engineer
舞蹈编剧 Choreographer
美术师 Artist
制片人 Producer
剪辑导演 Montage Director
配音演员 Dabber
摄影师 Cameraman
化装师 Make-up Artist

英文会议纪要写作格式

会议有各种各样的,如:委员会会议,董事会会议,全体员工会议等,有些是比较正式的会议,由专人主持会议,会议中由一名懂财务或法律的主任秘书记录讨论过的事项及决定,然后再由其秘书根据记录整理打印成文,印发给各位与会者及相关人员,这就是会议纪要(Minutes)。会议纪要不必要记下发言人的每个字、每句话,需要概括摘要会议内容及结果。会议纪要有其特定格式,语言和措辞也有其特点。

一、语言与措辞

会议纪要的语言与措辞有三个特点:

1. 语气要正式;

2. 动词一般采用被动式;

3. 措辞尽量采用常用词。

词汇的选择对语气和规范程度的影响较大,其次还有六个因素也制约你的行文规范程度,即语言缩写、缩略、人称代词、被动语态和读者对象。

A. 就语言而言,语言用得越正式,越现出商务气息。如:

Informal Formal

so-so satisfactory

B. 避免缩略语,用其全称:

Informal Formal

aren’t are not

She’s She is, She has

C. 避免缩写,用其整体:

Informal Formal

Dept. Department

Corp. Corporation

D. 避免使用人称,用非人称术语:

Our idea the company’s proposal

We wanted the corporation required

Your letter to us the correspondence received

E. 被动语态

使用被动语态给人感觉以中性,文件似乎由传真机所发,它能将人的注意力引向信息本身,而不是注意谁提出此建议,作出此决定等。如:

A salary cut was proposed.

Mr. *** proposed a salary cut.(这种写法会遭人注意或受到攻击,即使在会议上通过了,也是集体或多数人的意见,记录的也只是结果。

F. 态度

措辞常常能反映人际关系。纪要中对上级、对同行、对同事以及对下级所用的语气和态度是绝然不同的。对上级用尊敬、对同事同行用礼貌、对下级用权威命令式语气。这种语气差别主要体现在动词上:

对上级 对下级

could be is

should be is

would be will

might/may be will

seems to be is

looks as if is

appears is

almost decided decided

about certain certain

二、会议纪要常用表达法

1. 记录委员会听取了某报告或建议:

The committee heard/noted/recognized/recorded that …

e.g. The committee heard the report.

2. 记录委员会决定最好采取某措施;

The committee agreed/conceded/concurred/decided/ found/ resolved (to) that…

e.g. The committee resolved to purchase the warehouse.

3. 记录委员会决定最好不采取某措施:

The committee declined/agreed not/refused/rejected (to)…

e.g. The committee rejected the proposal to purchase the warehouse.

4. 记录委员会得到某指示或建议;

The committee was advised/informed/instructed/notified/ (that)/ (to)…

e.g. The committee was notified of the guidelines.

5. 记录委员会决定等待一段时间:

The committee deferred/postponed/shelved/tabled…

e.g. The committee shelved the proposal.

6. 出席会议的成员及头衔;

The following members were in attendance (or present):

Sara Simms, Chairperson

Jim Smith, Director of Personnel

7. 没有出席会议的委员:

The following members were not in attendance (or present or apologies for absence):

Ken Smith, Supervisor of Operations

8. 被邀请来列席会议的成员或仅就某个事项被邀请参加

Present by invitation

Present by invitation for Item Three

三、会议纪要的格式

会议纪要的格式较为特殊,一般如下:

1. 标题(Heading)

2. 出席会议人员(Attendants)

3. 未出席会议人员(Non-attendants)

4. 特邀与会者(Special Attendants)

5. 有关上次会议纪要的评论(Endorsement of Minutes)

6. 旧事项及新议题(Items of old and new business)

7. 下次会议地点、时间、日期(Place, time and date of next meeting)

8. 会议主持人及记录人员签名(Signatures of Chairperson and Secretary)

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