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Thursday Jul 14, 2011

口译的基本三种模式如何巧应用呢

口译的发展到现在已经达到了一个比较成熟的阶段。随着国际交流的日益频繁一名好的议员显得越来越重要了。因此 ,口译活动对译员提出了很高的要求 ,即口译人员在了解双语知识的同时 ,更要掌握与交际相关的知识体系和各种能力。
     口译是将一种语言符号所传递的科技信息内容 ,以口头表述的形式翻译成传递此信息内容的另一种语言符号。口译人员思维活动过程与特征 ,就是指口译工作的每一个环节及其相互之间的关系 ,译员思维活动的过程大体可以分为四个环节:知、 析、 记、 译。具体地说 , ( 1)感知:译员大脑接收作为表达某一概念的语言信号; ( 2)分析思考:对接收的语言信息进行判断分析 ,以搞清这些信号所表达的语言现象和所包含的信息内容; (3)记忆:立即自觉地忘掉这些语言信号的形式 ,而识记它所表达的有关内容; (4)译出:进行信号的转换加工 ,用另一种语言符号造出新的句子 ,保证译出的语言能表达原话讲述的内容。 
   一、 口译的三种基本模式 
   口译的过程模式可归纳为:左边是源语输入 ,右边是译语输出 ,连接左右两边的是信息概念转换。全过程可分解为语言信息的接收、 解码、 记忆、 编码和表达等阶段。
   1 .达妮卡模式
  法国巴黎大学高等翻译学校校长、 国际口译工作者协会创始人达妮卡.赛莱丝科维奇在其《口笔译训练的基本概念与模式 》 一书中提出了著名的 达妮卡口译模式。(1) Sl =L +M + P +C即:同声传译 ( Si multaneous inter p reting) =听力与分析(L istening and analysis) +短时记忆 ( Short - term memory ef2fort) +言语传达 ( Speech p r oducing) +协调 (Coordinati on)(2) Phase One: CI =L +N +M + CPhase T wo: CI = Rem +Read + P即:连续传译 (第一阶段 ) =听力与分析 (L istening andanalysis) +笔记 (Note - taking ) +短期记忆 ( Short - ter mmemory +协调 (Coordinati on)连续传译 (第二阶段 ) =记忆 (Remembering) +读笔记(Note - reading) +传达 ( Producti on)上述模式说明了连续传译口译过程中所包含的各种基本因素 ,同时非常强调口译过程中理解的重要性 ,并专门提出了口译的理解模式:C = KL + EK L +A即:理解 (Comp rehensi on) =语言知识 (Knowledge of thelanguage) +言外知识 ( Extra - linguistic knowledge) +分析(Analysis)
  2 . 图式翻译模式   所谓图式理论 ,基本上是一种关于人的认知的理论。也就是说 ,它是关于知识是怎样被表征出来的 ,以及关于这种对于知识的表征如何以其特有的方式有利于知识的应用的理论。按照图式理论的说法 ,所有的知识都能组成一定的单元 ,这种单元就是图式。
    图式理论认为 ,新的知识只有与现存的知识框架 ( exist2ing knowledge frameworks)相联系才能得以处理加工 ,高效的读者往往激活必要的知识框架来对所读文本进行解析 (Mc- Carthy, 1991)。而将图式运用于口译研究与教学 ,关键是要对源语进行正确的解码 ,表达的关键是进行恰到好处的目的语编码。因此 ,从图式的角度来理解 ,口译是译员正确理解源语中的各种图式并将其成功地在目的语中加以再编码。
   3 .文化互动模式     美国语言学家萨呸尔曾经说过 ,文化可以解释为社会所做和所想的 ,而语言则是思想的具体表达方式。从口译的表层意义看 ,它是将源语 ( S L)变成目的语 ( T L)的一个语言转化过程。但是 ,口译理论和口译实践均表明口译不是简单地使用两种语言的词语等值对应;口译是通过语言领会欲说之意而不只是领会语言本身;在话语所传达的意义与意义本借以形成的语言之间存在着根本的差别 ,这些差别说明口译是一种交际行为 ,而非简单的语言行为。可见 ,这一理论中占主导地位的是以文化发展而非语言本身为中心的理论;其核心是把口译看成是交际行为而非代码转换的过程;从文化互动的角度来研究口译的方法有很大的潜力。

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