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Tuesday Aug 02, 2011

旅游资料汉翻英问题与及其解决方案

中英文的差异是不言而喻的。中文旅游资料在写作之初没有、也不必考虑以后要翻译成英语的问题。鉴于旅游资料的翻译不同于文学作品,文献资料等的翻译,动笔之前首先要了解英文相关资料的写作模式;其次要明确翻译的目的,即在有限的篇幅内向游客介绍具体的、实用的信息;最后还要明确译文的服务对象———以度假休闲为目的的、对中国知之甚少或一无所知的普通游客。只有这样,才能将原文的主要内容以读者喜闻乐见的形式呈现于读者面前。

  外国人在有限的时间内尽可能多地了解中国文化,除了导游员的介绍,我们也不能忽视相关旅游资料的作用。旅游资料的种类很多,有图书、宣传画册、导游图、电视电影记录片和明信片等,它所涉及的内容五花八门,包罗万对象,以介绍中国旅游资源(旅游景点、旅游城市及旅游活动) 为主的旅行指南及对外宣传材料的汉译英问题。

  一、景点名称的翻译

  景点名称的翻译看似简单,但要译好译准,还需要译者对其有透彻的了解。一般的做法无非是音译、音译加意译和意译。景点名称是采取音译还是意译,要视情况而定,不可一概而论。例如,苏州著名的景点寒山寺,就不能译成Cold Hill Temple ,因其是取自一古代诗僧寒山之名, 故只能将其译成Hanshan Temple ; 又如: 拙政园( Garden of HumbleAdministrator) 是明嘉靖年间御史王献臣辞职回乡后在元大宏寺遗址所建造的别墅,并借用晋代潘岳《闲居赋》中“拙者之为政也”一句为园名。如果采用音译的方法,不仅这其中的历史人物、典故将不为读者所知,其园名及游园的雅趣也无从体会了。

  如果读者就无法对中国的宗教有更多的了解,使他们的中国之旅的收获大打折扣。还有“大观园”里的“稻香村”,名为“村”,实际不过一清朴农舍,所以要译成:Paddy Sweet Cottage.

  二、旅游资料的翻译

  (一) 明确译文的体裁,了解英文同类材料的写作模式旅行指南、城市及旅游活动的对外宣传材料,其篇幅是有限的。译文的读者是那些对中国一无所知或知之甚少的英语国家的客人。要让他们在有限的篇幅内获得尽可能多的信息,译者应该了解英语国家这类材料的写作模式。这里我们不妨看一看美国密歇根州的MACKINAC 岛和ALPENA 市的旅游资料。

  (二) 译者不是工匠而是设计师

  译者不是作者,这是无法选择的事实。但译者不应是简单地将一种语言符号转换成另一种语言符号的工匠,他(她) 要为读者着想,即译文能否为读者所接受,是否为读者所喜闻乐见? 因此,译者应该是一名设计师。上海朗帝翻译公司 http://www.fanyigongsi2.cn

  译出的文字会是什么样呢? 请看:南方某市举办的龙舟会的宣传材料:“中华大地,江河纵横; 华夏文化,源远流长?轻快的龙舟如银河流星,瑰丽的彩船似海市蜃楼,两岸那金碧辉煌的彩楼连成一片水晶宫,是仙境? 是梦境? 仰视彩鸽割飞,低眸漂灯留霓,焰火怒放,火树银花,灯舞回旋,千姿百态,气垫船腾起一江春潮,射击手点破满天彩球?”

  旅行指南、城市及旅游活动宣传材料的翻译不同于文献、科技资料、文学作品的翻译,由于篇幅有限,且译文读者只是来华旅游的普通游客而非对中国有一定了解的特殊人群,在翻译这些材料时,要充分考虑到读者的特点,中西方文化的差异,在不损原意的原则下,对原文进行增、删、改等“手术”,使译文具有实用性、指导性,能够让外国游客看懂,为他们所接受,从而真正达到对外宣传、促进旅游业发展的目的。

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