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Friday Nov 25, 2011

五则秘籍教你如何学好汉译英

  英语作为世界通用语言,我们必须要掌握,而且在发音方面,词汇方面要掌握透彻。上海翻译公司讲述英译汉方面,关键在于准确理解原文,在于译文中如何摆脱原文拘束,避免洋腔洋调。而在汉译英方面,英语的表达很难,很多人都为之苦恼。以下五方面的看法希望能给大家带来帮助。

1.关键仍在英语能力

如果说英译汉要与中国接轨才能既信且雅,那么汉译英就应当与世界接轨,即英语文字要尽量自然、流畅。固然我们作为外国人不可能做到像英语为母语的人那样自如,但这不是大量存在的死译乱译的理由。这一点至关重要。翻译是一种综合能力测试,翻译中种种现象与难点体现在一字一句具体之中,但归根结底都会反映出一点来:英语基础、基本英语水平,是做好翻译之根本。从学生作业、试卷中可看出,汉译英最能暴露学生表达缺陷。汉译英考试题材广泛,对英语基本功应用较全面。“译”是交际能力不可缺少的一部分。通过学习汉译英,有利于巩固和提高学生英语综合水平,在此基础上掌握基本翻译技巧和英语运用能力,顺利通过今后社会上将面临的求职、资格、职称评定、研究生入学等各种测试和考试,并能胜任就业之后的多种业务翻译需求。如果说作文题目制定可能会受各种条件限制而容易雷同和上靠的话,那么汉译英练习和考试中具体句子却不容易事先准备,实际翻译中问题往往不会分门别类出现,而是各种情况都有,学生不容易事先背写框架式的套语而致使评分难分轩桎。做好汉译英关键在翻译之外,具体技巧只有在充分熟悉汉英两种语言基础上,并且积极主动地应用于学习和工作之中才能逐渐掌握,不可能指望通过两三个月的突击,围绕某些“秘诀”而真正掌握汉译英这个工具。

2.遵循常用方法多做练习

   翻译是按原文句型、精神、意义、情绪再现原稿整体效果的艺术性再创作。实际上它比写作还要费时费神费力。因为写作中作家占有主动,可以自由发挥,而在翻译中则受原文局限,不能避此就彼,随意发挥。提高翻译技巧不能仅靠阅读翻译理论和技巧的书籍。正如茅盾先生所说,如对两端语文功底不够,那些条条你用不上;但若功底深厚,那些条条便成了不足取的桎框。

各种翻译技巧只是工具,用好用不好要看掌握得熟练不熟练。从学生翻译作业中,经常可看到英译汉时洋腔洋调,“翻译体”表现严重,而在汉译英时又是浓郁的汉式英语。许多情况下,单独看英语译文都看不出什么来,但是一经对照便会发现,译文在遣词造句上明显地是在按照中文的思路、使用英文单词进行字面上的简单堆砌,并未真正地把原文所指翻译出来,客户的宣传效果大打折扣。  

   英语和汉语在不同程度上都属分析性的语言,不仅在理论探讨,在翻译实践中也有必要做些涉及结构、词序、语境、词汇等方面的分析;同时从学习翻译技巧这一角度来讲,要结合对英语的掌握来应用,不宜深钻死抠。联系上面所说,还是要强调扎扎实实地学习英语,有时候由深厚的语言积累而自然获得的“语感”更为重要,比如注重汉英两种语言在词类分工使用上、对时间顺序、结构关系的不同侧重上等等。毕竟都是成年人学外语,讲求一些技巧可事半功倍。但是技巧是在透彻理解汉英异同之后的归纳和抽象,学习中假如未能仔细揣摩教科书中的道理,假如做练习时抢着看参考答案,那么到头来这些技巧还是外在的。

总之,仅仅了解翻译基本原则和常用技巧并无多大实际意义,译者像任何其他专业的从业人员一样,要经过不懈的训练,熟能生巧。大多数人在学以致用方面还有欠缺,说的就是综合运用能力差。翻译是门技巧性极强的艺术,只能通过大量实践才能逐渐提高。可是盲目的实践难免劳而少功,所以应有理论指导;另一方面,离开实际的理论又是空洞无益的;因此两者必须紧密结合,互相促进。

3. 目标读者与服务意识

   汉译英的读者对象是国外广泛的各阶层人士,为适应国外一般读者承受的能力,译者翻译要力求给目标读者提供内容充实、通俗、易懂、并为他们乐于接受的译文。你在做汉译英时不妨做个假设:将目标读者降低一个年级程度来对待。     这里强调一个观点:翻译固然是门学问、是个特讲水平的行当,但在市场经济中,它首先是一种服务。在面向客户和读者的界面上,翻译需要同时伺候好两个客人:一是原文作者,二是译文读者。不管你学问有多深或多浅,翻译时要尽量做到眼里有作者、心中有读者。读原文仔细点;译文遣词行文,尽量适应目标读者。最好能抱着“提供一流服务”的态度对待每一句原文、每一句译文。

上海朗帝翻译公司 http://www.fanyigongsi2.cn

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