上海瑞科翻译公司

« 前页 | 首页 | 下页 »
Monday Aug 08, 2011

翻译策略透视

关键词:直译与意译、语义翻译与交际翻译、归化翻译与异化翻译

Investigating the Dichotomy of Translation Strategies

Abstract: Translation strategies are an indispensable content in translator training. Whenever discuss translation strategies, many people would mention the dichotomy between literal translation and free translation, semantic translation and communicative translation, domesticating translation and foreignizing translation. But very often these concepts are mixed together and cause confusions. This article attempts to analyze the main features of these three pairs of strategies and summarize the differences between them.

Key words: Literal/free translation, semantic/communicative translation, domesticating/foreignizing translation.

引言
一般的翻译教材在讨论翻译问题时,都离不开讨论翻译方法与技巧。我国在八十年代初出版的统编翻译教程(即张培基等编著的教程),主要是讲述常用的翻译方法与技巧,其中包括:词义的选择、引伸和褒贬;词类转译法;增词法;重复法;省略法;正反、反正表达法,分句、合句法;被动语态的译法;名词从句的译法;定语从句的译法;状语从句的译法;长句的译法,和习语、拟声词、外来词语等特别语词的译法等。

九十年代出版的翻译教程也基本上沿用这些方法与技巧,或在此基础上有些改进,例如,柯平编著的《英汉与汉英翻译教程》,除了提出与张培基教程大同小异的方法外,还提出了变通和补偿手段:加注、增益、视点转换、具体化、概略化、释义、归化和回译。

也有学者(参见刘宓庆1993:196-234)把分切、转换、词性转换、语态转换、肯定与否定、阐释或注释、引伸、替代、拆离、增补、省略与重复、重构、移植等等方法称这“手段”。

以上所引是不同学者所用的不同术语,用以描述翻译过程中的具体处理方法。究竟哪些属方法、哪些属技巧、哪些属手段,恐怕是很难讲得清楚的。我们在这里把翻译过程中具体的操作方法(如以上所述的方法、技巧、手段)都类归为翻译“方法”;而把那些能够包含多种方法的术语,如直译法、意译法、语义翻译法与交际翻译法(见下图)、异化翻译法、归化翻译法等,类归为翻译“策略”。本章讨论的就是这样的翻译策略。

翻译二分法
一直以来,无论是在我国还是在西方,直译与意译都是翻译讨论的中心话题。“直译与意译之争,在我国自有翻译之时起就已存在”(罗新璋,1984:4)。“此争论至少从公元前就已经开始。到了十九世纪初,很多作家倾向于意译,即译其神韵而不是译字母;译意义而不是译词汇;译信息而不是译形式;译事实而不是译方式。……不过,这种争论是纯理论的,争论者并没有考虑到翻译的目的、读者的情况和文体类型等因素”(Newmark 1988b:45)。

直译、意译在传统译论里讨论得最多。自二十世纪六十年代以来,在西方又出现了其它的提法,例如:奈达(Nida 1964)提出的“形式对等”(formal equivalence)与“动态对等”(dynamic equivalence) 在本质上和意译与直译是一致的。还有其他学者提出的二分法,例如:霍斯(House 1977)的“显性翻译”(overt translation)与“隐性翻译”(covert translation);格特(Gutt 1991)的“直接翻译”(direct translation)与“间接翻译”(indirect translation);图瑞(Toury 1980,1995)的“适当性”(adequacy) 与“可接受性”(acceptability);纽马克(Newmark 1981/1988)提出的语义翻译 (semantic translation) 与交际翻译 (communicative translation),以及温努提 (Venuti 1995) 的异化翻译 (foreignizing translation) 与归化翻译 (domesticating translation)。

以上所述的翻译方法二分法,既有共通和地方,也有不同的地方。本章将对人们常引用及争论直译/意译、语义翻译/交际翻译和异化翻译/归化翻译等三对翻译策略进行探讨,追溯其根源,弄清其概念,并举例说明其所指。

直译与意译
关于直译之争持续了几个世纪,赞同者坚定不移,反对者(也即意译的赞同者)坚持已见,互不让步。其实,英文literal translation 和中文“直译”的定义都不是十分确定,既可指逐词译 (Word-for-word translation),也包括逐句译(Sentence-for-sentence)。直译作为一种翻译策略常见用于以下领域的翻译:(1)用于翻译科技资料;(2)用于外语教学,让学生了解两种语言结构的差异;(3)也用于文学翻译,Nabokov 是文学翻译中直译的高手,在他看来,“只有直译才是真正的翻译”(见Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997:96)。

然而,在现代文学译者中,赞同直译的人为数不多,其中的主要原因之一如Nida 所说,“因为没有哪两种语言是完全相同的,无论是符号所指的意义或语言符号的排列方式都会有差异。可以说,语际之间没有绝对的一致。因而,也就没有绝对准确的翻译”(1964:156)。

八十年代初,张培基等学者在当时的统编教材《英汉翻译教程》中这样下定义:“所谓直译,就是在译文语言条件许可时,在译文中既保持原文的内容,又保持原文的形式——特别指保持原文的比喻、形象和民族、地方色彩等。但直译不是死译或硬译。……应当指出,在能够确切地表达原作思想内容和不违背译文语言规范的条件下,直译法显然有其可取之处。直译法一方面有助于保存原著的格调,亦即鲁迅所说的保持‘异国情调’和‘洋气’,另一方面又有助于不断从外国引进一些新鲜、生动的词语、句法结构和表达方法,使我们的祖国语言变得日益丰富、完善、精密”(张培基等 1980:13)。

九十年代出版的翻译教程,对直译又有了不同的阐释:“直译指翻译时要尽量保持原作的语言形式、包括用词、句子结构、比喻手段等等,同时要求语言流畅易懂”(范仲英1994:90)。一般说来,采用直译所产生的译文看起来肯定有翻译的痕迹,读起来也不是那么通顺。如果直译也“要求语言流畅易懂”的话,说明译者心目中的直译与意译的界线已经开始模糊,二者不再是对立的两种策略。

意译法有以下特点:(1)以目的语为导向;(2)用规范的目的语语言把原文的意思表达出来;(3)注重译文的自然流畅,不一定保留原文的结构及修辞手段。(见Shuttleworth & Cowie 1997:62-63)。

现在人们普遍认为,直译和意译各有优缺点,意译与直译不会形成二元对立,因为翻译策略不是一成不变的。最恰当的做法是根据不同的语篇类型、翻译目的和读者对象来制定不同的翻译策略。直译、意译是翻译过程中表达阶段所采用的两种最基本的方法。正如张培基等学者所说,“不同的语言各有其特点和形式,在词汇、语法、惯用法、表达方式等方面有相同之处,也有相异之处。所以翻译时就必须采取不同的手段,或意译或直译,量体裁衣,灵活处理”(1980:14-15)。

在原语与目的语有共同的表达方式时,直译是最快捷有效的方法。例如:

(1) He ran his administration as a one-man show, and loved to exercise authority … Arthur Krock reported that he was “the boss, the dynamo, the works”. (The Glory and the Dream p.82)

(译文)他在政府里惯唱独脚戏,喜欢发号施令。……阿瑟·克罗报道说,罗斯福“是老板,是发电机,是钟表的发条。”(王宗炎1983:9)

当原语在目的语中找不到对应词,直译又无法把原意传递出来时,意译是解决问题的有效方法。例如:

(2) If Main Street didn’t understand this, Wall Street did. ((The Glory and the Dream p.85)

(译文)这一点,一般人不理解,华尔街那些大老板们却是明白的。(王宗炎1983:10)

如直译为,“如果主街不理解,华尔街是理解的。”,读者就会不知所云。王先生把Main Street 意译为“一般人”,把Wall Street意译为“华尔街那些大老板们”,把原意清楚地表达了出来,使译文简短明白。

(3) Bette Davies, Spencer Tracy and Frank Capra were Oscars. … Alfred Hitchcock was making a lady vanish. (The Glory and the Dream p.197)

(译文)电影演员贝蒂·黛维丝、斯本塞·屈莱塞、弗兰克·卡普拉获得了奥斯卡金像奖。……艾尔弗雷德·希契科克导演了《名媛失踪》。(注:影片原名是the Lady Vanishes.)(见王宗炎1983:11)

原文玩了个文字游戏,很风趣,凡是了解艾尔弗雷德·希契科克曾导演the Lady Vanishes的读者,看到这句话时,大概都会忍俊不禁。但是这样的文字游戏却造成翻译上的极大困难,如直译成“艾尔弗雷德·希契科克使一位淑女失踪”,其意思就会与原文相悖。王先生采用意译的方法,表达了原文的一层意义,说明了一个事实,可惜其双头语的形式消失了,原文的风趣味道也完全丧失了。对此,王先生深有感触地说,“每种语言都有自己的特性,都有自己独有的声音、文学、修辞手法和社会习惯,这是无法移植的。古书说,‘橘逾淮而北为枳’。橘子好吃,枳可是酸苦的。翻译正是如此。一篇好文章,翻译过来往往读不得。你可以把大意译出,可是原文那些音乐和形象性,原作者那些言外之意和弦外之音,你会丢了一大半”(王宗炎1983:9)。

语义翻译与交际翻译
语义翻译是(英国翻译理论家Peter)Newmark 提出的两种翻译模式之一,其目的是“在目的语语言结构和语义许可的范围内,把原作者在原文中表达的意思准确地再现出来 (Newmark 1981/1988:22)。语义翻译重视的是原文的形式和原作者的原意,而不是目的语语境及其表达方式,更不是要把译文变为目的语文化情境中之物。由于语义翻译把原文的一词一句视为神圣,因此有时会产生前后矛盾、语义含糊甚至是错误的译文。语义翻译通常适用于文学、科技文献和其他视原文语言与内容同等重要的语篇体裁。然而,需要指出的是,Newmark 本人也认为,语义翻译并非一种完美的翻译模式,而是与交际翻译模式一样,在翻译实践措施中处于编译与逐行译之间的“中庸之道” (Hatim & Mason 1990: 7),(Newmark 1988: 45)。(见图一)

图一:语义翻译与交际翻译(Newmark 1981/1988: 45)

翻译方法(http://www.locatran.com)

Translation Methods

SL emphasis TL emphasis

Word-for-word translation逐字译 Adaptation 编译

Literal translation 直译 Free translation自由译/意译

Faithful translation 信译/贴译 Idiomatic translation地道翻译

Semantic translation 语义翻译 Communicative translation交际翻译

“交际翻译”有两个重要的概念,第一,交际翻译(或交际途径)指的是视翻译为“发生在某个社会情境中的交际过程”(Hatim & Mason 1990:3) 的任何一种翻译方法或途途径。虽然所有的翻译途径都在某种程度上视翻译为交际,而这里所说的交际翻译却完完全全地以目的语读者或接受者为导向。沿此途径的译者在处理原文的时候,旨在传递信息而不是复制一串串的语言单位,他所关心的是如何保留原文的功能和使其对新的读者产生作用。交际翻译和逐句逐行译和直译的不同之处在于,它把原文中的遣词造句的形式仅视为译者应考虑的部分因素。

第二,交际翻译是(英国翻译理论家)纽马克 (Peter Newmark) 提出的两种翻译模式之一(参阅语义翻译),其目的是“努力使译文对目的语读者所产生的效果与原文对源语读者所产生的效果相同” (1981/1988:22)。即是说,交际翻译的重点是根据目的语的语言、文化和语用方式传递信息,而不是尽量忠实地复制原文的文字。译者在交际翻译中有较在的自由度去解释原文,调整文体、排除歧义,甚至是修正原作者的错误。由于译者要达到某一交际目的,有了特定的目的读者群,因此他所生产的译文必然会打破原文的局限。通常采用交际翻译的文体类型包括新闻报导、教科书、公共告示和其他很多非文学作品。

值得注意的是,交际翻译并不是一种极端的翻译策略,它和语义翻译一样是翻译中的“中庸之道” (Hatim & Mason 1990: 7),既不像编译那么自由,也没有逐行译那么拘谨。

那么,交际翻译与语义翻译之间有什么差异呢?交际翻译的关注点是目的语读者,尽量为这些读者排除阅读或交际上的困难与障碍,使交际顺利进行。在语义翻译中,译者仍然以原文基础,坚守在源语文化的阵地之中,只是解释原文的涵义,帮助目的语读者理解文本的意思。

交际翻译强调的是译文的“效果”;而语义翻译强调的是保持原文的“内容”。纽马克(1988a: 39;15)曾列举两个例子说明语义翻译与交际翻译的差别(中文是本书作者加):

原文语义翻译交际翻译

(4) Bissiger Hund! (German) Dog that bites. Beware of the dog!

Chien méchant! (French) Savage dog. Beware of the dog!

(5) Wet paint! Freshly painted. (German) Mind the paint! (French)

湿油漆!油漆未干。小心油漆!

析:例4,如果用语义翻译,把德语原文译为“那条狗咬人。”;法语原文则变为“凶狗。”。这两则译文都成了陈述句,为读者提供信息。而用交际翻译法,把两者都译为“小心恶狗!”,译文成了命令句,有警告的作用。例5是一条告示,德语版本看来是采用了语义翻译法。英、德两个版本都只为读者/受众提供信息,告诉人们“油漆未干”。法语版本没有按照英语原文的形式,而是用交际翻译法传递了此告示的功能,即请人们要小心油漆。

交际翻译所产生的译文通常是通顺易懂,清晰直接,规范自然,符合特定的语域范畴。交际翻译常常是“欠额翻译”。换句话说,即使翻译难度较大的语篇,交际翻译也会较多地使用通用的词汇。语义翻译所产生的译文通常比较复杂、累赘、罗嗦和过于详尽。译者尽力追踪原作者的思想过程而不是努力阐释。

异化翻译与归化翻译
异化翻译法(或异化法)(Foreignizing Translation or Minoritizing Translation)和归化翻译法(或归化法)(Domesticating Translation or Domestication)是美国翻译理论家Lawrence Venuti(1995)创造的、用来描写翻译策略的两个术语。异化翻译法是故意使译文冲破目的语常规,保留原文中的异国情调。Venuti把异化翻译法归因于十九世纪德国哲学家Schleiermacher的翻译论说“译者尽量不惊动原作者,让读者向他靠近” (Schleiermacher 1838/1963: 47, 1838/1977:74; Venuti 1995: 19)。Schleiermacher本人是赞同采用异化法的。Venuti(1995: 20)指出,在盲目自大地使用单语、并把归化翻译法作为标准的文化社会(例如英美社会)中,应提倡异化翻译法。在这种情况下采用异化法,表明这是一种对当时的社会状况进行文化干预的策略,因为这是对主导文化心理的一种挑战。主导文化心理是尽力压制译文中的异国情调(或“异物”)。Venuti把异化翻译描述成一种“背离民族的压力”(1995: 20),其作用是“把外国文本中的语言文化差异注入目的语之中,把读者送到国外去”(1995:20)。

具体说来,异化翻译法包括以下特点:(1)不完全遵循目的语语言与语篇规范;(2)在适当的时候选择不通顺、艰涩难懂的文体;(3)有意保留源语中的实观材料或采用目的语中的古词语;(4)目的是为目的语读者提供一次“前所未有的阅读经验”(1995:20)。不过,Venuti 也承认,译文是用“本土的文化材料”组成的,异化翻译 [像归化翻译那样] 只能是翻译过程中的其中一种策略,不同的是,采用异化法的译者一般都态度鲜明,而不是隐隐匿匿(1995:34)。用异化法英译的典型例子包括庞德(Ezra Pound)的许多译作,纳巴科夫(Nabokov)(1964/1975)直译的名著普希金的诗体小说《尤金·奥涅金》(Eugene Onegin)。(参阅:Venuti 1995)

归化翻译法旨在尽量减少译文中的异国情调,为目的语读者提供一种自然流畅的译文。Venuti 认为,归化法源于这一著名翻译论说,“尽量不干扰读者,请作者向读者靠近”(Schleiermacher 1838/1963:47, 1838/1977:74; Venuti 1995:19-20)。然而,对Venuti来说,归化法带有贬义,因为归化法实际上体现了主导文化社会中常见的政策,即“盲目自大地使用单语,把外来文化拒于门外”。他还认为,主导文化社会“习惯于接受通顺易懂的译文,把外国文本中的价值观隐匿在本国的价值观之中,令读者面对他国文化时,还在自我陶醉地欣赏自己的文化”(1995:15)。这里的“隐匿“是一个重要的概念,因为它说明了译者在翻译中的角色。在以归化法作为标准翻译法的文化社会中,正是译者的“隐匿性”使译文自然而然地归化于目的语文化而不被读者发觉(1995:16-17)。

归化翻译法通常包含以下几个步骤:(1)谨慎地选择适合于归化翻译的文本;(2)有意识地采取一种自然流畅的目的语文体;(3)把译文调整成目的语篇体裁;(4)插入解释性资料;(5)删去原文中的实观材料;(6)调协译文和原文中的观念与特征。

Venuti指出,归化翻译法是英美文化社会中占主导地位的翻译策略。这种策略与该文化社会和其他文化社会的非对称文学关系相一致。由于归化翻译法流行于英美文化社会诸多领域,因此有必要有意识地选择其他翻译策略,以挑战其统治地位。以下分析一个归化翻译的例子。

A well-known scientist (some say it was Bertrand Russell) once gave a public lecture on astronomy. He described how the earth orbits around the sun and how the sun, in turn, orbits around the center of a vast collection of stars called our galaxy. At the end of the lecture, a little old lady at the back of the room got up and said: “What you have told us is rubbish. The world is really a flat plate supported on the back of a giant tortoise. The scientist gave a superior smile before replying, “What is the tortoise standing on?” “You’re very clever, young man, very clever,” said the old lady. “But it’s turtles all the way down!”
(From Hawking, S.W. 1988. A Brief History of Time from the Big Bang to Black Holes. London and Auckland: Bantam Press.)

(从希腊译本回译) Alice in Wonderland was once giving a lecture about astronomy. She said that the earth is a spherical planet in the solar system which orbits around its center the sun, and that the sun is a star which in turn orbits around the center of the star system which we call the Galaxy. At the end of the lecture the Queen looked at her angrily and disapprovingly. “what you say is nonsense. The earth is just a giant playing card, so it’s flat like all playing card,” she said, and turned triumphantly to the members of her retinue, who seemed clearly satisfied by her explanation. Alice smiled a superior smile, “and what is this playing card supported on?” she asked with irony. The Queen did not seem put out, “You are clever, very clever,” she replied, “so let me tell you, young lady, that this playing card is supported on another, and the other on another other, and the other other on another other other…” She topped, out of breath, “The Universe is nothing but a great big pack of cards,” she shrieked.

析:原文是霍金(S.W. Hawking)的《时间简史》,属于科普著作,阅读对象为有一定文化程度的读者。其文本类型和读者类型决定了其语言特点是朴实明了,不带太多的修饰成分。译文(希腊语)的目的读者显然是少年儿童,译者根据目的语的文化背景,采用了归化翻译法,对译文进行了特殊的处理:(1)采用了形象替代法,套用了少年儿童熟悉的“Alice in Wonderland”(《爱丽丝游记》)故事中的人物来讲原文中的故事。爱丽丝(Alice)是一个充满好奇心、求知欲强、爱思考的女孩子,译者用她来代替原文中的科学家,对于少年儿童来说更加有吸引力。《爱丽丝游记》中有一段是讲爱丽丝与一个扑克王国的故事,而这个王国中最主要的人物就是皇后。爱丽丝常与皇后发生争论,而皇后的形象与原文中的老妇人(the old lady)十分相似,就是趾高气扬,固执已见。因此,译者用皇后(the Queen)代替原文中的老妇人(the old lady);用扑克(playing card)代替乌龟(tortoise),整个故事里面的喻体变了,但是喻义没有变。

结语
本文对人们常提的三组翻译策略,即直译/意译、语义翻译/交际翻译和异化翻译/归化翻译进行了概述,并举例说明其所指。直译、语义翻译和异化翻译三者之间的共同之处是比较靠近原文;意译、交际翻译和归化翻译三者之间的共同点是比较靠近目的语或目的语读者。虽然有交叉重叠的地方,但是也有区别。我们认为,这三者之间最大的区别是:当人们讨论直译/意译时,他们的焦点是具体的操作方法;当人们讨论语义翻译与交际翻译时,他们心里想到的是语言的意义及其交际功能;而人们讨论异化翻译与归化翻译时,他们的关注点是抵制外来文化还是引入外来文化。

 

参考文献:

[1] Bassnett, Susan. 1980. Translation Studies. London: Routledge.

[2] Catford, J.C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University Press.

[3] Gentzler, Edwin. 1993. Contemporary Translation Theories. London and New York: Rouledge.

[4] Hatim, B. and I. Mason. 1990. Discourse and the Translator. London: Longman.

[5] Hatim, B. and I. Mason. 1997. The Translator as Communicator. London and New York: Routlege.

[6] Newmark, Peter. 1988a. Approaches to Translation. London: Prentice Hall.

[7] Newmark, Peter. 1988b. A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hall.

[8] Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Toward a Science of Translating: With Special Referenceto Principles and Procedures

Involved in Bible Translating. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

[9] Nida, Eugene A. & C. R.. Taber. 1969. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

[10] Robinson, Douglas. 1997. Becoming A Translator – an Accelerated Course. Lonon and New York: Routledge.

[11] Toury, Gideon. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John

Benjamins Publishing Company.

[12] Venuti, Lawrence. 1995. The Translator’s Invisibility – A History of Translation. London and New York: Routledge.

[13] 范仲英,1994,《实用翻译教程》。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。

[14] 罗新璋(主编),1984,《翻译论集》。北京:商务印书馆。

[15] 王宗炎,1984,辨义为翻译之本。《翻译通讯》第四期。

[16] 杨自俭主编,1994,《翻译新论》。武汉:湖北教育出版社。

[17] 张培基等,1980,《英汉翻译教程》。上海:上海外语教育出版社。

[18] 张美芳,2001,《中国英汉翻译教材研究(1949-1998)》。上海:上海外语教育出版社。

[作者简介] 张美芳,香港浸会大学(翻译学)哲学博士,中山大学教授、澳门大学客座教授;研究方向:翻译研究,语篇分析,应用语言学。

[联系地址] 广州新港西路中山大学外语学院 510275;澳门特别行政区澳门大学英文系。

评论:

上海英语考试枪手俱乐部【电话:13020220911 QQ:466623959】代考替考包过,拥有200多个枪手,8年品质 始终如一

发表于 127.0.0.1 在 2011年08月11日, 03:22 AM CST #

It's a good article for the beginners-translators. i'd like to read such articles more!!!

发表于 Jade Liu 在 2011年09月02日, 09:45 AM CST #

过来看看!支持下!

发表于 上海翻译公司 在 2011年09月08日, 08:02 AM CST #

Gifts carry an element of surprise in them and turn out to be a matter of joy for any 1 hit by the cupid. A gift presented with genuine feelings, regardless of how little it could be, can bond two hearts forever Cate patent calf boot. The ultimate pleasure and contentment lies in seeing your beloved jump with joy if you shock them having a custom produced personalised gift!
In today's globe exactly where science has progressed towards the extent that our lives have started becoming mechanised and monotonous, gifts nonetheless hold their special significance inside the lives of 1 and all Bianca 140mm Nude. Think of the moment you last surprised you beloved with a gift and he/she sprung with delight and hugged you tight Mago 160mm Blue. It feels good for sure but the moment you step up in a gift shop the solutions obtainable around you make it all of the additional confusing as to what precisely will likely be the 'right' gift for your beloved that may sweep him/her off their feet. You then commence hunting for that unique gift within the store helplessly and then end up being even more baffled than prior to. This method is rather exhausting and in the finish of the hunt you feel your efforts have gone in vain. Here online comes to your rescue as it truly is flooded with web pages supplying useful services for you to help picking out that unique personalised gift and deliver it to your beloved when you are not with him/her Greissimo Pump 85mm Black.
personalised gift for your valentine like a three dimensional cube, a beautifully customized heart shaped clock or a Personalised names embedded mug could possibly be just correct and serve the purpose of expressing how much you enjoy him/her. Several other personalised gift concepts apart from the ones mentioned are available for you to gift Toutenkaboucle Buckle Sandal. Personalised bags are 1 wonderful option you may rely on. There are plenty of kinds of bags that come in varied designs; colours, sizes and patterns that you can personalise inside your own style keeping in mind what he/she really likes Helmour 100mm Multicolor .
If you might be a guy, you'll be able to flatter your girlfriend with that gift she saw in a store across the street or the one she is longing to have considering that quite a lengthy time and has already expressed her desire to you. Necklaces along with other kinds of accessories she loves to sport or perhaps a personalised cuddly teddy bear which she may perhaps love to keep by her bedside would prove to be just correct for her! A customized heart shaped clock that bears an eternal really like quote or perhaps a loving message you normally wanted to convey her will make you win her heart forever Trailer 140mm Royal Blue. She would treasure the gift with love and care usually keeping it at a place nearby which can make her think of you just about every time she sees it.
So the subsequent time you would like to surprise your beloved, go for a personalised gift of their selection which can remind both of you of the special moments you've spent together making you fall in love with each and every other all more than once more!
Jenny 100mm Multicolor

发表于 selection 在 2011年10月24日, 05:57 PM CST #

Summer time picnics are a wonderful method of getting outside and enjoy the clean air. However, picking out an appropriate ensemble can be a little difficult, as there are a lot of elements to consider like the kind of picnic, the location, the planned activities and also the expected weather for that particular time. Whatever the circumstances, the goal is to combine style and convenience.

Apparel for a casual family picnic will be very different than for the yearly agency picnic. A day Christian Louboutin Pigalili 120mm passed with relatives is going to be laid back, because you don't need to attempt to impress anyone. Therefore, Christian Louboutin Pigalle 120mm Black Glitter just about anything may be enough. Clothing could be jeans or cotton pants, tank tops, t-shirts, ball caps, sandals or comfortable shoes.

On the other hand, work associated events should be approached using a more traditional eye. Elements of a business-casual wardrobe, for instance polo tops, light-weight cardigans and sharp t-shirts and tank tops, may be mixed with a stylish cotton or jeans skirt or skort, longer Bermuda style shorts or capri pants. Another choice would be somewhat cut sundresses, as long as the hemline hoovers close to knee-length or maybe longer. Maxi dresses, that have thoroughly clean, simple lines and are Christian Louboutin You You Sling 85mm Black also ankle-length, will look unbelievably chic and sophisticated, especially when they have a halter top plus a daring graphic pattern. In terms of office or corporate picnics, the biggest thing to consider would be to retain stuff tasteful and prevent anything that is too revealing.

Another type of picnic Christian Louboutin Lady Peep Sling 150mm Turquoise is the romantic date. This is a circumstance in which females might actually want to appear a bit sexy and alluring. One attire could include really short shorts or perhaps a skort and a soft camisole top. Another thought is a breezy skirt combined with a form-fitting tank top. Nevertheless, the basic picnic date outfit would need to Christian Louboutin Alti 140mm be a sundress in a flowery or checkered print.

For the picnic, footwear need to be comfortable yet suitable. Because picnics include strolling across grass, it's always best to steer clear of putting on thin, high heels. Not merely will they become caught in the mud, but they will just look odd. Therefore, it's best to put on flat sandals, espadrilles, sneakers, boat shoes or loafers. The only real kind of heel that might be fitted is a wedge sandal, since it has a level sole. In terms of louboutin, keep it simple with some gold items or some chunky wooden objects.

Picnics which entail a lot of activities, for example beach ball, tennis, horseshoes or a pick-up soccer match, will need sports apparel, and that's why lots of people choose to take a change of clothes. It is also prudent to take a light-weight jacket, sweater or sweatshirt, just in case it becomes cool Christian Louboutin Pigalle 120mm Black Patent Leather or there's a unexpected rainstorm. The best picnic materials are lightweight and breathable materials like linen, cotton, ramie, gingham, stretch jersey, silk or blends. Vivid colours, like orange, green, yellow, blue and red, along with vibrant designs, will look marvelous in the bright summer sun.Ellen Lanier has been a fashion writer for nearly several years now, her work has been printed on many sites Christian Louboutin Beverly 100mm Silver and publications. Ellen's article subjects include dresses, pants, shirts and all kinds of attire. She lives in Los angeles with here 2 pet dogs Tommy and Gucci.
Christian Louboutin Toutenkaboucle 150mm Beige

发表于 printed 在 2012年05月24日, 05:45 PM CST #

A woman always take handbag anywhere and anytime is because recently, based on the reports of psychologist from Britain Medium it is proved that this is because different color handbags could bring enough confidence for them. Bag can sometimes reveal the owner's secret. Handbags are one of the main fashion accessory used by women. Women Christian Louboutin Very Prive 120mm Nude are always using a handbag or a purse when going outside. Whether they are going to movie, office, shopping, club etc.

There are so many different types and models of designer handbags for women available in the market. Owing and using such a designer handbags for women, is certainly too proud on. It has the pride that we edge with when we are carrying or wearing a glamorous and stylish handbag for women. But when going to buy a handbag Christian Louboutin Bourge 100mm Leather there are many things hovering in one's mind about the quality of material, workmanship, materials used, style, designer etc. Women use different types of handbags in different color, different material, style etc., these handbags are of various categories like designer handbags, leather handbags for women, fashion handbags etc. The handbags made from the leather and other such expensive material are very costly as they are made of durable leather will lasts for a long time and the color of the handbag will never fade. Leather handbags are of premium quality fashion accessory that can develop and boost your overall emergence in an outstanding manner. The best and finest part of leather handbags is that its fabric can last for long as compared to any other type of fabrics.

Daniela Zagnolli has added a new stock of Faux fur handbags to her latest collection, the leather handbag is available in black, Christian Louboutin N°Prive 120mm Black gray and soft brown, all these bags are made of different leathers like Mongolian Lamb Fur, Chinchilla fur, leopard fur etc. The leather bag has a lush fur panel and luxurious gold satin lining. It features a zippered side panel, metallic snap closure, and gold plated brass detailing and hooks on the leather strap. This versatile handbag easily transitions Christian Louboutin Lady Peep Sling 150mm Nude from day to night.

One more type of handbag is Faux fur handbag which is quickly gaining popularity in recent days. Many renowned and experienced designers are adding and showcasing their faux fur handbags in their collection. Many women are not really big time admirers of these Faux handbags but some of them have interest and related details, Christian Louboutin Dafsling 160mm Leather and a number of them are very elegant and classy. A beautiful furry evening handbag with elaborate pearl beads. It is for sure that this furry handbag will make a statement Christian Louboutin Lady Peep Sling 150mm Nude/White with any evening gown. Designers basically incorporate these furry handbags while winter fashion. You can find various categories of Faux fur handbags like hobo style, back pack style, clutch, tote bag etc.
Daniela Zagnolli is a famous and renowned designer, she adds glimpse to each and Christian Louboutin Pigalle 120mm Fluo Yellow every design.

Daniela Zagnolli has added a new stock of Faux fur handbags to her latest collection, the fur handbag is available in black, gray, Red, soft brown color made of different kinds of leather like Mongolian Lamb Fur, Chinchilla fur, leopard fur etc. These fur bags are of different style like hobo style loto style, etc, Faux fur handbag features a beautifully lined interior, flap closure, and an adjustable antique plated chain strap that can be worn in Christian Louboutin Miss Tack Booty 85mm three lengths. Adorned with removable antique plated chains with charms and stones that can also be worn as a necklace. Throw a statement with Daniela Zagnolli’s faux fur handbag

发表于 that 在 2012年06月22日, 01:50 AM CST #

One Louis Vuitton Purse of the few Greek economists who is seen as operating largely above partisan politics, Mr. Stournaras and his group, the Foundation for Industrial and Chanel Handbags Economic Research, have been a go-to source for Greece’s lenders seeking unvarnished assessments about the true state of the economy. His telephone number is Louis Vuitton Bags one of the first dialed by members of the “troika” — the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund and the European Central Bank — when they want Louis Vuitton Bags a readout on how things are faring, said an official familiar with the lenders’ thinking but not authorized to speak publicly. “He is a person who can Mens Belts inspire respect and trust in negotiating crucial economic issues with the troika,” said Basil Dalamagas, an economics professor at the University of Athens, where Louis Vuitton Bags Mr. Stournaras has taught macroeconomics since 1989. One of Mr. Stournaras’s first tasks will be to talk formally with Greece’s lenders. Mr. Samaras Hermes Belts won his recent election victory on pledges to push back some of the more onerous austerity requirements attached to the country’s $170 billion bailout. Chanel Purses Mr. Stournaras will have to immediately find more than $14 billion worth of cuts to meet the bailout terms. He will need to figure out how to replenish Chanel Bag the government’s fast-dwindling treasury Louis Vuitton Handbag bat a time when the economy has contracted more than 6 percent and unemployment has reached 22 Louis Vuitton Bags percent.

发表于 Chanel Handbags 在 2012年06月26日, 08:27 PM CST #

Nike Air Max have an ever increasing catalogue, as well as the immensely popular canvas dolly shoe
Air Max 24-7
ago introduced the party heels and as soon as again the little girls cant get adequate of them
Air Max 90
are out there in leather or patent leathers these are a desirable addition in any school playground
Nike Air Max LTD
are a necessity in any suitcase cheap Air Max 2011 and will brighten u
Cheap Jerseys
are a necessity in any suitcase cheap Air Max 2011 and will brighten u
MLB Jerseys
are a necessity in any suitcase cheap Air Max 2011 and will brighten u
NFL Jerseys
Having undergone the diligent and hard word of talented craftsmen, replica Dior handbags are
Christian Louboutin Black Pumps
stunning styles that cater to the requirements of people of all ages and all classes.
Christian Louboutin Knockoff
Having undergone the diligent and hard word of talented craftsmen, replica Dior handbags are
Dr Dre Monster Beats
r modern fashion people. Lots of people can feel their top class qualityr modern fashion people. Lots of

people can feel their top class quality
Monster Beats By Dre styles that cater to the

requirements of people of all ages and all classes.



发表于 monsterbeats 在 2012年06月30日, 12:16 PM CST #


Gucci
Sac Longchamp
Sac Longchamp
Louis Vuitton

发表于 Gucci 在 2012年08月27日, 09:34 AM CST #

We all OPI Nail Polishmake OPI Nail Polish Wholesalemistakes in lifeCheap OPI Nail Polish, but theOPI Nail Polish Sale good news is theseOPI Summer Splash mistakes OPI BrightPaircan be easilyOPI Colorcopia fixed if we recognizeOPI DS them as mistakes andOPI France try to fixOPI SoftShades them! When it comesOPI Spain to training OPI SoftShades(NLH33) [NLH33]your abs, youopi-dsds033 mightOPI Brights(NLB31) [NLB31] be making some mistakes andmac makeup not even realize it. There is so Mac Hello Kittymuch wrong informationMac Ladygaga Series floating outcheap mac makeup there about howMac Lady gaga to get a six pack.
In this article I am going to go over Mac Makeup Bagssome of the top mistakes that many people make when trying to get six pack abs. If you are making just Mac Makeup Blushone of thesebuy mac makeup mistakes then it can be holding you back from getting the abs that you deserve.
Mistake 1: Drinking Fluids Other Mac Makeup ConcealerThan Water
It is OK to have to occasional soda orMac Makeup Eye gel sportsMac Makeup Eye pencil drink everycheap mac makeup once in a whileMac Makeup Blush, but if you are drinking them every day you are consuming way too many caloriesMac Makeup Brushes. We all know Mac Cosmetics Brush #217soda isn't the healthiest thing ever, but believe it or not sports drinks are not that great for you either.
Next time you go to the store to buy a Mac Makeup Concealer Selectnike free sale Moisture cover Cahe-Cernsports drink take a look at the nutritional facts and noticeNike Free 3.0 Sale how much sugar is in it!
Also, even though diet soda does Nike Free 3.0 Women's Running Shoenot have calories it is still not healthy for you to drink.Nike Free 5.0 Mens Cheap Diet soda will cause you to store extraNike Free 5.0 Womens Sale
water and cause your bellycheap nike free to become bloated. This obviously does not help when trying to get six pack abs!
Mistake 2: Only Eating ThreeNike Free 7.0 Mens Shoes Sale Meals Per Day
I know it makes sense for us to just eat three meals per day, but did you know you would actually lose more weight by eating up to six meals per day? I am not saying that you should eat more food, but if you take those three meals and split them in half toNike Free 7.0 Womens Sale create six meals you will be able to eat more often without eating excess calories.
There are many major benefits to this, but the biggest benefit is the fact that every time you eat your body has to digest the food and when it Nike Free Dynamo PS Shoesdoes that your metabolism speeds up. So spreading your meals Nike Free Everyday Sale
out into six meals will keep your dicount nike free on salemetabolism going fast.
Mistake 3: Not Performing Cardio
When people want to get a six pack Cheap Nike Free Hybrid Bootsthey put too much emphasis on working out there abs and not enough emphasis on doing cardio.
Getting abs is as simple as losing bodyNike Free Hyper Trainer Womens fat and cardio is one of the best ways to loseNike Free Prototype Golf shoes for sale body fat.
I know putting together a healthy diet and exercise program can be tough, especially if you have no idea what you are doing. If you feel like Nike Free Run sale mensyou don't know how to properly design a diet and workout program I have already designed one for you!

发表于 zengzhipeng 在 2012年09月17日, 10:13 AM CST #


These maintain your wardrobe fascinating Karen Millen dress by adding color, texture, shape, and bling! A few stores I adore for this are Le Chateau, H&M and centre kiosks. I discover the most effective affordable jewelry, trendy footwear and wild hair clips. purchase a vivid orange or red-colored handbag from Payless Shoe shop for $20 and pump up your dark fit for work, or jeans plus a t-shirt. Hollywood stars use precisely the same tricks just on the numerous budget. the most effective idea would be to Karen Millen outlet put on a wonderful outfit with a single or two add-ons highest that pop! My mom utilized to attire very nicely since she picked out add-ons and garments that looked wonderful but price following to nothing. that is since she looked in shops like K-Mart as she couldn't afford artist and even centre shop prices. set on the Blazer and jeans using a pair of cute flats and Karen Millen have a single substantial item like a wonderful necklace to actually make your neckline pop. When wild hair is executed up,

发表于 127.0.0.1 在 2012年11月06日, 08:49 AM CST #

U.S. military vacated an air cheap pandora charms base in Pakistans southwest Sunday, meeting a December 11 deadline set by Islamabad in response to NATOs November 26 air strike that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers. The Pakistani military said it took over the Shamsi base in Baluchistan province pandora jewelry shortly after the last U.S. personnel departed. Saturdays rallies in Moscow, St. Petersburg and the Far Eastern cities of Khabarovsk and Vladivostok were the largest to hit Russia since the tumultuous 1990s and were largely peaceful. A mile away, in a square pandora bracelets uk opposite the office of Bloomberg, Shaun Boyle stands chatting outside his tent. He used to work in financial services in the City of London. But hes now undergone a dramatic change in his sympathies. However, protests cheap pandora beads in Moscow and St. Petersburg last week triggered a massive police presence and the arrests of hundreds of demonstrators. French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe on Sunday urged Russias leaders to hold a dialogue, to avoid violence, and to let the opposition pandora uk sale demonstrate and learn the lessons for the organization of the next presidential elections. The Pakistani government ordered the move as part of several punitive measures reflecting Pakistani anger about the deadly incident. Islamabad also closed its border crossings cheap pandora necklaces to trucks delivering supplies to NATO forces in land-locked Afghanistan and boycotted an international conference in Bonn on Afghanistans future. There was no immediate confirmation of the base withdrawal pandora locks from U.S. officials. Pakistan accused NATO forces of deliberately targeting Pakistani soldiers during an operation against militants on the border with Afghanistan. Taking another tack, Russias ruling duo sought to cool widespread anger over the vote by announcing small cheap pandora uk concessions on national TV Prime Minister Vladimir Putin promised to shake up government - if he is elected President in March.
http://feiji.ezhongmou.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1523805&extra=
http://test.yeswan.com/dx15/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=1356929&extra=
http://qanda.com.hk/dz7.orig/viewthread.php?tid=512633&extra=
http://www.hnyhjt.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=3161495&extra=
http://www.xy888.net/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=730126&extra=
http://119.97.246.148:801/bbs/dispbbs.asp?boardid=2&id=3266&page=1&star=1
http://www.taizhouqc.com/bbs/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=206467&extra=
http://114.32.66.110/mobile01/viewthread.php?tid=1163582&extra=

发表于 cheap pandora charms 在 2013年01月15日, 02:41 PM CST #

: The type of treatment for hair styling varies with the type and texture of the hair. There are numerous products and methods available today for those who have a passion for styling their hair into different hair styles frequently. There are both chemical treatments and straightening with flat irons available to choose from. Long before Christian Louboutin Ankle Boots Daf Booty 160 Leather the introduction of hair straighteners, most of the women used to depend on chemical hair straightening treatments. There is both permanent and temporary hair straightening methods available today. The modern trend is the use of flat irons. The advent of flat irons has made it simple and easy to accomplish any hair styles without much time. There is numerous hair styling products also Christian Louboutin Bibi 140mm Amethyste available to help in acquiring beautiful, long lasting results after using a flat iron. The hair industry today is hoarded with such advanced hair styling products and tools that helps in controlling various hair types easily. The hair type varies from one person to another. Some have curly hairs while others have thick, wavy hair. Some have fragile hair Christian Louboutin N°Prive Riche 120mm and others fine hair. Thus, the type of the flat iron to be used on different hair also varies with the type and texture of the hair. Moreover, the frequent use of hair straightners is also highly hazardous Christian Louboutin Simple Pump 100mm to the health and beauty of the hair. Those who cannot resist using a hair iron on a daily basis should opt for a high quality, professional flat iron that is made with advanced heating materials that can safeguard the hair from prolonged and frequent heat exposure. Ceramic and tourmaline flat iron are for such people who have an unmanageable, stubborn hair that needs to be tamed every day. Ceramic flat irons infused with 100 % tourmaline materials are capable of styling the hair smoothly and gently Christian Louboutin Sexy 100mm Black without harming any single strands when used. Protecting your hair from the possible heat damages of the flat iron Christian Louboutin Alta Campus 150mm Black is also highly important. Before using a flat iron on your hair, you need to prepare it Christian Louboutin New Decoltissimo 85mm Nude for the process. You should wash it with shampoo and deep cleanser and apply good quality heat protectant cream or sprays as a barrier from the heat. When applying the iron, always use it on small sections of hair and remember to set the temperature to minimum so as to guard your hair from being over heated or burned. Using safe methods and natural products are the most important factors for controlling the hair with a hair Christian Louboutin Jenny 100mm Silver iron.

发表于 controlling 在 2013年03月13日, 03:50 PM CST #

a distinction between real curly brazilian hair weave and 'brazilian curly weave hair' brunettes I was unaware brazilian hair weave wholesale of before becoming a beauty editor), and beyond brazilian remy hair weave that, Ive never really wanted to. Which brazilian weave hair extensions to say, I may have wanted to, but not enough to ever actually do anything about it.

发表于 11 在 2013年05月03日, 05:16 PM CST #

发表一条评论:
  • HTML语法: 启用

日志归档日历

新闻种子设置

搜索网志

链接

导航

引用